Fuel simulation results for different hybrid engines are compared in Table 2 to FuDS and FHWDS driving cycles. For both medium and compact cars, fuel consumption is largely dependent on the technology used in the drive chain. The use of diesel engines results in the highest fuel consumption (miles per gallon of diesel fuel); However, considering the aspects of energy consumption (kJ / mi) and CO2 emissions (gm CO2 / mi), the diesel engine's advantage over gasoline engines should be discounted to reflect higher energy and gallon diesel fuel compared to gasoline.
These discount factors are 15-20 percent. The simulation results also indicate that for the same type of engine, fuel consumption may be 10-20 percent higher using the ultracapacitory instead of the batteries as an energy storage device. The highest fuel savings apply to vehicles using fuel cells. The use of compressed hydrogen fuel cell fuel (gasoline equivalents) is about two such hybrid vehicles with a direct-injection gasoline engine and about 80 percent higher for diesel engines. All fuel cell vehicles were constructed using a fuel cell with a nickel metal hydride battery, allowing them to operate at high efficiency at all times.
Compared to the fuel savings of conventional cars and serial hybrid powertrails, hybrid vehicles have the same weight and road loads as conventional cars. Still, utilization of the hybrid drive chain in the FODS cycle resulted in a 50 percent improvement in the fuel economy and achieved about 10 percent improvement in the FHWDS (freeway cycle). The fuel consumption of conventional cars comes from the EPA Fuel Savings Guide, which was corrected by 10 percent for the FuDS and 22 percent for the highway cycle. These corrections were made because the actual dynamometer fuel economy data was reduced by such factors as the published fuel economys are more in line with the real world values.
The fuel consumption of the series and of the parallel hybrid vehicles is compared in Table 3 for compact, light and medium-sized cars. Serial hybrids assume that they only work in charging maintenance mode (no battery charged from the wall jack), but parallel hybrids can operate charge maintenance or charge reduction. In the case of a parallel hybrid, in the charging mode, fuel consumption refers only to gasoline and power plant (pp), including the energy required to charge the batteries from the wall socket. For hybrid vehicles using gasoline engines (injected ports), the fuel consumption of parallel hybrid vehicles in the charge maintenance mode (engine-charged batteries – not the wall connector) is 9 to 12 percent higher than the hybrid of the series.
For the assumed power efficiency (33%) of the calculations, parallel hybrids (only batteries with wall socket) operating in the charging mode have only equivalent to 1 to 4 percent equivalent fuel consumption compared to the same method of maintaining the charge. When batteries are installed from a more efficient power plant, in the charging mode, the fuel economy of the parallel hybrid would be easier.
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