Matthew Arnold is really a great warrior for the dominant real culture of London society. You will find the kingdom of materialism that tries to strangle the true culture. So in this chapter, Arnold shares England's society into three classes – the aristocratic class, the middle class, and the working class. He finds that Anarchy is very common in this class and analyzes them with their virtues and mistakes. The aristocratic class of the time is represented by the Barbarians, the middle class as the Philistines and the working class as the population.
The examination of three old-age classes proves to be a good experienced critic. For the aristocratic class he thinks this class is not enough for resistance. This group calls the barbarians because they believe in their individual individualism, in their freedom and in their liking; They had great passion for field sports. Masculine physical activity, strength and good appearance are definitely found in the aristocratic class of his age. Courtesy is similar to knightly barbarians, and external styles of manners, achievements, and powers are inherited by barbarians.
The other class of the middle class or the Philistines, who are commonplace wisdom, industry specialists know industrialization and trade. Their eternal predisposition to the development and well-being of the country is the cities, the railways and the big wheels of the industry. They created the largest mercenary navy. So they are the builders of the Empire. In this material development, the working class is with them. All the keys to progress are in their hands.
The other class is the working class or the population. This class is raw and semi-developed due to poverty and other related diseases. This class is mostly used by barbarians and philistines. The author has been democratically attracted to this class because he becomes politically conscious and comes out of hiding places to enforce the privilege of an Englishman as he loves, meets where he pleases, embarrassed what he likes, LOVES.
Despite such a class system, Arnold finds the common ground of human nature everywhere. So the spirit of candy and light can be grounded. Even Arnold himself calls himself a Philistine and rises above his birth level and social position for perfection, sweetness, light and culture. He also claims that all three classes find happiness they like. For example, barbarians like honor and attention, fieldwork and joy. Philistines like fanaticism, business and money making, comfort, and tea encounter, but the Populace class hated by both classes likes shouting, bustle and beer. They all conduct different activities based on their social status. However, there are souls who hope for culture in the desire to know their best or to see things as they are. They are eager to maintain the cause and overcome the will of God.
For the sake of perfection, it is not only for brilliant or talented people, but also for all classes. In fact, the love or the pursuit of perfection is in the eyes of the common people. The man of culture is called the real nurse of love, sweetness and light. You will find people in all three classes who have a general human spirit to attain perfection. He says that the right source of power is the best of oneself or the right cause for culture.
Best of Me, or the Right Cause and Ordinary Me:
Here is the best of yourself or the right cause and the ordinary self, which can only perceive perfection. In this regard, he speaks of the bathos surrounded by the soul of man, which was presented in literary judgments by some literary critics and some American religious organizations. He also claims that the best self-concept is very difficult in literature, religion, and even politics. The political system in its era was barbarians. Leaders and statesmen sang the praise of barbarians for the sake of aristocrats. In Tennyson's poems, he celebrates the glory of the great wide-shouldered, thrilling English, his duties and respect for the laws. Arnold claims that Tennyson sings the praise of the Philistines because this middle class is the backbone of the current country. Politicians sing the praise of the people to wear them. In fact they play with their feelings after they have shown the brightest power of sympathy and the most respected power of action. All these praises are mere applause traps and tricks to applause. The flavor of bathos is surrounded by nature in the soul of man, and it is in the common self. Common vocals force readers to mislead the nation. It is very wonderful, but the benefits are represented by the representatives and the dominant men.
Arnold bends for good reason as a primary authority that got best. All classes have to follow, otherwise anarchy prevails and they do what they like. He wants to defeat the best in education because he was in danger. He thinks that when a person's special taste for the bath is tyrannical over the other person, the result is that the right cause or the best self does not have to dominate the education. For a good reason, he insists on this authority in the field of education. The situation of education is due to the lack of intellectual elasticity of instructors who neglect the best single or good cause and try to recall the taste of the baths; and torn to its natural function and endless experiments.
Arnold wants to reform in education by relocating the management of public schools from their old curators to the state. Like politics, in education, the danger is not controlled and unmanaged individual action. All activities must be verified by the real cause of the individual or the best of oneself. Some people believe that the state should not interfere with educational matters. Liberal parties believe in freedom and individual freedom in love and claim that the intervention of the state in education is a violation of personal freedom. Arnold says that this ideal personal freedom is still undefined.
The mission of Arnold's culture is that every individual must act and be perfect. The chosen people or classes have to strive for perfection and it seems that Humboldth, the German philosopher, agrees to achieve perfection. Culture makes them perfect on their own. So it is imperative that one tries to find human perfection for the best of himself or for real reasons; culture, in the end, find the public cause.
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