The electric car

A brief history and what's next? At the end of the 19th century, any vehicle that was not pulled by a horse or a mule was considered an alternative electric machine that was powered by steam, electricity or petrol. But oil was discovered in 1901 in Texas and was dominated by gasoline-powered internal combustion engines in the 1920s. Electricity and steam engines were distant. Oil is cheap, efficient, easy to access and easy to transport. It was dirty, noisy and stinky, but these features were less than cost and availability.

Electric cars were introduced in the first half of the 19th century. At the end of the 20th century, electric vehicles were keeping most world speeds and long-distance records. They were cleaner, quieter, easier to handle, and easier to maintain than steam or gasoline, but they had fatal weaknesses: battery support limited the driving range of electric cars to 40-50 miles before they needed 6 or 8 hours of charge. Electric vehicles were still manufactured in the United States in 1939. Between 1939 and 1996, no electric cars were manufactured in the United States. This changed when General Motors produced EV1 for California's 1991 zero-emission vehicle mandate that required 2% of new cars sold by California's largest car manufacturers in 1998 to meet zero emission standards . The first EV1 autos used in lead-acid batteries. The second generation GM EV1 cars had 160 miles of nickel-metal hydride batteries. During the ZEV mandate, a total of 4-5,000 electric vehicles were sold in the US.

In 2001, GM and Daimler Chrysler sued California for regulating fuel consumption in violation of US law after California released a zero-emission vehicle. At the end of 2003 GM deleted EV1 and soon followed by other manufacturers. The movie "Who killed the electric car?" suggested that the GM EV1 program was canceled as soon as California released the commission of zero emission vehicles, as 1) production is no longer relevant; 2) Electric cars have had an impact on the oil industry; and 3) the sale of electric cars has adversely affected the GM spare parts after being placed on the market. Virtually all EV1 cars leased to the general public were recalled and destroyed by GM, estimated to invest $ 1 billion in EV-1 development. General Motors recently announced that the electric Chevy Volt (hybrid electric vehicle) will be available in the United States in 2010. According to the US Department of Energy, more than 60,000 electric cars are in use in the United States at more than 15,000 California plants. More than 800 vehicles (most notably the Toyota RAV4 EV) that were manufactured during California reset missions overcame more than 110,000 miles of logging, showing durability and sustainability.

What's next?

Although there are zero emission mandates in place, the marketplace talked about. The abyss of high gasoline prices, global warming and American dependence on oil sources in the Middle East encouraged the development and manufacture of electric vehicles

o Five small electric vehicles and six electric vehicles

o Chrysler, Ford, GM, Toyota, Nissan, VW and Renault, a dozen or more new car manufacturers have introduced or are planning to show electric cars by 2010. moving quickly to the new battery compartment. Tesla Motors and Miles Electric Vehicles use lithium-ion battery technology, among others.

Europe and Japan

Since the first oil embargo in 1973, Europe has been constantly interested in electric vehicles. Nowadays, electric vehicles are built in Italy from Norway to Europe. Not to be missed, Mitsubishi and Subaru announced that they will produce lithium-ion cars before 2010. Toyota, Honda and Nissan also have production models available in the United States. States and DC in Washington allow the operation of adjacent electric vehicles (NEVs) that can run on the streets , with a maximum speed of 35 km / h. Local governments have the right to prohibit their use or require authorization and liability insurance. The NEVs must have safety belts with four wheels, windscreen wipers, windscreen wipers, headlamps, rear lights and direction indicators, but no airbags are required. NEVs can legally travel no faster than 25 mph. Usually they are equipped with lead-acid batteries, which offer about 30 miles. Prices from $ 6,000 to $ 14,000

Freeway Electric Vehicles

In addition to the Toyota RAV4 EVs, most electric vehicles NEV in the US in 2008. Tesla, Chevy (Volt), Mitsubishi, Nissan, Honda (hydrogen fuel cell technology) and Toyota, Think (Norway), Smart EV (Mercedes) and Zenn (Toronto).

Electric Vehicle Benefits

o Clean electric vehicles are real zero-emission vehicles. No greenhouse gases are produced during operation of the vehicle.

o Gasoline has been discontinued, which is generated by traditional and increasingly renewable energy sources. Many electric vehicles have factory-installed or remanufactured solar panels installed on roofs.

o Fuel cost (electricity) by 20-25% gasoline or flex fuel costs per mile.

o 95% of the energy used to charge EVs comes from domestic sources. Dependence on foreign oil decreases.

o Very low operating and maintenance costs.

o Self-generating with regenerative braking.

o Easy battery recharging through the usual household 110V outputs and charging stations.

o Electric vehicle production is currently available and is available at a similar price to conventional petrol and hybrid cars. Some models are also available in the luxury price range.

Limitations

o Range of 250-300 km using lithium-ion batteries

o Battery cost, weight, disposal

o Little commercial battery charging station

o Home battery charging is not practical for apartment dwellers and for those who can not park near their home. o The mileage range increases with battery technology improvement.

o Battery capacity, cost, and weight are reduced by new technology.

o Battery charging stations will expand to increase EV production.

Consequences and Consequences

o Physical vehicle features and comfort will change. Vehicles do not have a traditional appearance

o The reliability and durability of vehicles is increasing

o Operating costs of vehicles are reduced as fuel costs, repair costs and spare parts costs are reduced

o Reduced congestion due to the footprint of smaller vehicles

o Further consumer choices

o Reduced dependence on fossil fuels and imported oils

Stan Gassman, BSC Sustainability Services, Copyright 2008-2009

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